Permanent magnets are essential in the manufacture of motors required for electromobility, and also required for the majority of off-shore wind turbines. Neodymium, together with other rare earth metals are mined, separated, and then fabricated into permanent magnets, with the vast majority of each step performed in China. The demand for permanent magnets is set to grow at unprecedented rates over the next 10 years. Low carbon mining, separation and recycling projects are advancing around the globe. Will supply from these sustainable and diverse sources keep up with the surge in demand required to facilitate the transition to net zero emissions targets?